Following the Apollo Missions, NASA developed and deployed the Space Transportation System (STS), more widely known as the Space Shuttle Program. Unlike the Apollo spacecraft, the new Shuttle spacecraft could be reused for future missions in space. Since the first shuttle launch in 1981, five different spacecraft have flown missions for the program - Columbia, Challenger, Atlantis, Discovery, and Endeavour.
A number of landmarks in American spaceflight have occurred during the Shuttle Program. In the summer of 1983, aboard the Shuttle Challenger, Astronaut Sally Ride became the first American woman to fly in space. On the next Shuttle mission, Astronaut Guion Bluford became the first African-American to fly in space. In 1986, Astronaut Franklin Chang-Diaz became the first Hispanic-American to fly in space.